How Does a Pellet Smoker Work?

Hey Smokers, and welcome to my post where we will run through the answer to a question that I didn’t know I had – how does a pellet smoker work? And why didn’t I know I had it, well as you may or may not know, this site is all about cooking on my new Traeger Pro Series 22 Pellet Smoker and seeing where we can take things.

How Does a Pellet Smoker Work - Header

I purchased my pellet smoker as to be honest, I was struggling to find the time to fully manage my little charcoal smoker and wanted something that I could ‘set and forget’. And then of course it wasn’t until I got mine that I realized that I had no idea how they worked.

So, I did some investigation and come up with the below:

How Does a Pellet Smoker Work - Traeger pellet smoker

The Basics

Let’s start with the basics of how a smoker works in simple terms:

  1. The Hopper is filled with Pellets: Begin by loading the smoker’s hopper with wood pellets, which are made from compressed hardwood sawdust.
  2. The temperature is set: On the smoker’s control panel, set the desired cooking temperature. The smoker will automatically adjust the pellet feed to maintain this temperature.
  3. The smoker feeds the pellets: An auger (a large screw-like device) transports the pellets from the hopper to the firepot. The speed at which the auger moves the pellets controls the smoker’s temperature.
  4. The pellets are ignited: In the firepot, an electric heating element ignites the pellets, creating heat and smoke.
  5. A fan circulates heat and smoke: A fan circulates air throughout the smoker, spreading the heat and smoke evenly around the cooking chamber. This ensures that the food is cooked evenly and gains a smoky flavor.
  6. The food is cooked: As the food in placed in the cooking chamber, the consistent temperature and smoke from the burning pellets cook and flavor the food.
  7. The heat is monitored and adjusted as necessary: The smoker’s digital controls monitor the internal temperature and automatically add more pellets when needed to maintain the set cooking temperature.
  8. The cook is done: Once the food is cooked to your liking, or to the right internal temperature, it is removed it from the smoker and it is turned off.
  9. The smoker is cleaned: After the smoker cools down, the cooking grates are cleaned, the firepot is vacuumed and the internal walls wiped down.

Check out my post: How To Choose the Best Pellet Smoker For Your BBQ Needs

How Does a Pellet Smoker Work? – Let’s Break it down

Now, whilst the steps above are fairly standard for a pellet smoker, the ins and outs will obviously change depending on the brand and build of the device. And in simple terms, the differences between a budget model and high end model will determine how it all runs during a cook.

In my experience, a budget model will do the job well, but higher end models contain greater abilities around temperature control, heat retention, pellet efficiency and the like. So with that in mind, let’s have a look at the things that we can look at when it comes to smoking food on a pellet grill.

The Pellets

As we started with above, the core of the pellet smoker’s functionality are the pellets themselves, which are small, cylindrical pieces of compressed hardwood sawdust. These pellets come in various wood flavors, such as hickory, mesquite, apple, and cherry, allowing for a range of taste profiles.

The key to their design is that they burn cleanly and consistently, providing a steady smoke source without the unpredictability of traditional wood chips or logs.

How does a pellet smoker work? pellets in hopper

The Delivery

This is the key aspect of a pellet smoker and forms the main functions of the whole pellet burning process. Pellets are transferred from the hopper to the fire pot via an auger (a screw-like mechanism) which feeds the pellets at a speed that is determined by the temperature set on the control panel.

This automated feeding system is what sets pellet smokers apart, offering a “set it and forget it” convenience to smoking food.

Ignition and Temperature Control

In the firepot, an electric ignition rod heats the pellets until they ignite. Once lit, a fan circulates air throughout the cooking chamber, aiding in combustion and helping to distribute heat and smoke evenly around the food.

This process is a little loud (well, it is in my budget model) but crucial for ensuring consistent cooking temperatures and achieving the perfect smoke ring in meats.

From here, the digital controller monitors the temperature inside the smoker and adjusts the auger’s speed to add more or fewer pellets to the firepot as needed, similar to how a thermostat controls a home heating system.

The Cooking Chamber

The term ‘cooking chamber’ sounds a bit fancy for a smoker and I have just always called it the smoker, or the grill. Regardless, this is the area were everything is cooked, often with racks to place food on as well.

As the wood pellets burn in the firepot, they produce a smoke (flavored by the type of wood pellets used) that infuses the food, creating that distinctive barbecue flavor.

The even distribution of smoke and heat ensures that food is cooked thoroughly and evenly, with the ability to produce everything from a tender brisket to perfectly smoked salmon.

traeger smoked lamb shoulder - lamb in smoker

My Experiences

It was actually quite interesting putting this post together due to the fact that as mentioned above, I really didn’t know anything about the workings of a pellet smoker before I got myself one. And whilst the inner workings appeal quite simple, I am also guessing that there are quite a few technological and electronic inclusions that are not listed above.

That said, I have really loved the fact that I can put a meat type in, set the temperature and end up with perfectly cooked outputs regardless of how it all works.


So, there you have it, my look into the ins and outs of how of how a Pellet Smoker works. I hope it has been of assistance but as usual, if you have any questions please do not hesitate to reach out by commenting below.

And of course I would also love to hear below about your experiences with the workings of your smoker as well.

Are there any other products you have been looking at but want to know more about? If so, please comment below and I will do my best to get some details for you.

Until next time

Have fun and get smoking!


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